final report

The Final Report

At the end of any project, a final report must be presented. This means that every project must have an official conclusion. The drafting of the project final report is the moment in which it is officially communicated that the project has come to an end and that the funds and resources will no longer be needed for it.

The workforce will then be returned to the respective departments and the contracts with the suppliers will be concluded.

This is a phase that cannot be omitted or reported informally, but must be formalized in a document that:

  • Attests what the project team delivered.
  • Provides an evaluation of the project in terms of quality of work.
  • Evaluates the budget and program performance.

The purpose of a project final report is to evaluate how a project was executed, being honest and objective.

What should a project final report include?

A project final report must necessarily include:

  • A description of the process with which the project was approved and the reason why it started.
  • A summary of the project execution with the specification if the project has achieved its goals.
  • Details on the project budget performance.
  • A list of factors that influenced the project results.
  • If possible, a description of the financial impact or other benefits that the project will provide on the organization.
  • Annexes containing summaries of important project documents, such as the scope document, the project plan, the test results and the final approval / acceptance.

Why is a project final report required?

If the project involves work for an external customer, the preparation of a project final report is generally required by contract. This is enough to show how necessary this report is at the end of a project.

However, even when a final report is not specifically requested, internal and external stakeholders are probably expecting one. Therefore, it is always better to deliver a project final report as soon as possible after completion of the work.

The final report will serve several purposes, including:

  • Inform stakeholders that they may not have been actively involved during all the phases of the project, that the project is complete and how it went.
  • Inform the other departments or organizations involved that the project has come to an end and that no additional resources or materials will be required. This allows the availability of resources for other projects.
  • Document any deviations from the planned budget or program, along with explanations as to why the variances occurred. This can help in the future to draw up a more accurate project plan when it comes to managing similar projects.
  • Recognize the efforts of the employees who worked on the project, especially those who contributed more than expected. This type of formal recognition can do much to increase people’s morale and maintain their commitment to the organization.

the final report

How to carry out the project evaluation and prepare the final report

Evaluation is a useful tool for stakeholders who have financially or technically supported the project. It means, in fact, assessing whether the project has met its purposes or not.

Evaluation is also important for the project manager in order to reflect on what happened during the course of the project and to learn how to better organize projects in the future.

The evaluation can actually be conducted only once, ie at the end of the project, or several times during the project. It can, for example, be useful when a milestone is reached or in the middle of the project life cycle.

Next, we will illustrate which are the main methods used for the evaluation of a project.

Regular review of activities during the project

At the end of each activity, a partial evaluation of its development is made. It is possible to include an evaluation on the completion of the activity in time and on budget compliance. If there was a delay, it is necessary to write the reason and explain how it was possible to limit the negative impact on the project. If the budget had not been sufficient, it is necessary to explain how the situation has been addressed and how this has affected the project in general. At the end of the project, all the partial reviews will be examined and collected to write a complete and detailed final report.

Interviews with participants

The interview with the participants is one of the fundamental steps for the drafting of the project final report. The project manager speaks directly with each participant in order to assess his level of satisfaction, the impact of the project in his working life and his commitment to the project. It is also very useful to collect possible ideas on how to further develop the project or how to design future similar projects.

Surveys and questionnaires

These allow you to collect a set of data that can produce statistical information. For example, it is possible to view the level of satisfaction of the participants through easy-to-read visual graphs that can be included even in the project final report.

The characteristics of a project final report

Regardless of the chosen project evaluation method, there are some qualities that a final report should absolutely possess:

1) Clarity. The report is a short document that can inform the reader about the main points of interest. It is unlikely that the entire development of the project will be told in such a report. As a rule, it is necessary to remember that the goal is to present how the project was successful and select the relevant information accordingly.

2) Structure. Reports must have a clear structure that will be used as a model. Moreover, they should clearly identify the targets set for the specific time period and demonstrate how they were achieved or not. In the event that something has not gone as planned, the report should provide clear information to understand what has happened and how the organization has addressed the problem.

3) Lessons learned. A good project final report always has a section dedicated to a critical evaluation of the project as a whole. This part is important because it indicates what the organization has learned and communicates how in the future it is possible to develop further projects drawing on what has been learned.

Since there is no way of knowing who could read the project final report and for which purpose, this report should include enough information to be understandable even by those unfamiliar with the project. Whoever reads it must be able to understand the purpose, execution and final result of the project without being overloaded with too much information.

It is obvious that a Project Management Software greatly facilitates the drafting of a project final report. The possibility of sharing documents with all the members of the team and with the stakeholders allows to take into account the individual states of progress of the project and all activities or obstacles that have been met along the way.

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project deliverables

Identify the project deliverables

In project management, a deliverable is a product or service that is provided to the customer.

A deliverable usually has an expiration date and is tangible, measurable and specific. It is given to an external or internal customer and meets a milestone or a deadline that is created and produced in the project plan.

There may be one or more deliverables within a single project.

Know when a deliverable can be defined as such

Deliverables are what drive the success or failure of each project. It is important, therefore, to know what they are and all the different forms they can take.

These measurable results confirm the achievement of the goals of the project. The results also demonstrate the adherence of the team’s work to the project requirements.

However, in the execution of a project, it also happens that some obtained results have little to do with the project itself. It is therefore necessary to have parameters in order to know when it is possible affirming that an output is a deliverable. An output, in order to be classified as a “deliverable” within a project, must:

  • fall within the scope of the project
  • be accepted by stakeholders – external or internal
  • be the result of deliberate work
  • have a precise role in realizing the goal of the project

The deliverable can be big and tangible, like a building or a factory, but it can also be small, like a one page document.

The deliverables, on their own, are rarely the final goal of the project, but rather trace the path to reach it.

This is why project managers often focus obsessively on their definition, management and monitoring.

 Internal vs external deliverables

A common way to classify the final results is to divide them into “external” and “internal” deliverables. There is a simple way to define them:

  • Any work done to satisfy customer requests or to fight competition is an external deliverable.
  • Any work done that is not part of the business with customers is an internal deliverable. In short an internal deliverable is whatever is created as part of business management. Keep and monitor accounts, create business documents, etc. these are all examples of internal deliverables.

Difference between Deliverables and Milestones

Another source of confusion for some project managers, especially at the beginning of their career, is the difference between deliverables and milestones.

Milestones are checkpoints during a project and can be inserted at any point. They mark the completion of an important activity. They have no deadlines, but are simply a way to keep track of project progress.

Milestones are created to break down a complex result into its constituent parts.

Moreover, milestones are not meant for customers, but for the internal project team.

Project deliverables vs process delivarables

There is also another distinction to be made when it comes to deliverables: project deliverables vs process delivarables.

The deliverables of the project are the great customer-centered goals we talked about previously.

The process deliverables instead, describe the path that will help to achieve the project results.

All documents created during project management, such as the project scope statement, the project plan, and the work breakdown structure, are documents not addressed to the final customer. However, they are necessary documents for internal stakeholders and for the team in order to better manage the project.

All these documents are examples of process deliverables. Their creation is not the goal of the project itself, but they are fundamental for a successful conclusion.

Process of defining project deliverables

To define the deliverables of the project, it is necessary to have a look at the project goal and ask the following questions:

  • What is the project trying to achieve?
  • What is the purpose, goal or final result that the customer wants once the project closes?
  • What are the constituent parts of the project goal?
  • What is the form and function of each of these constituent parts?
  • How important is this part for the overall project?
  • How will it be possible to create this part?
  • What is the cost of production / acquisition of this part?
  • How long will it take to produce / acquire this part?

In essence, the goal of the project is being divided into smaller parts and, at the same time, the feasibility and priority of each constituent part is being evaluated.
the project deliverables

Collection of requirements for deliverables

The probably most difficult part is defining the requirements for each deliverable. In particular, the requirements specify the criteria that make a deliverable acceptable – or not.

If the requirements are incomplete, customers will inevitably require changes and revisions and this can increase the scope and budget of the project, therefore affecting profits.

For this reason, a fundamental step in the definition of the deliverables is the collection of the requirements.

There are several methods that can be adopted to find the requirements.

Regardless of the tactics used, however, there are some questions that should always be asked:

  • Who are the main stakeholders that need to accept this deliverable?
  • What are the main priorities for this deriverable?
  • Do these requirements fall within the scope and budget of the project? If not, how much additional time / budget is needed?
  • Have we created similar deliverables in the past? What were their needs?
  • What is the industry standard for these deliverables?
  • Who is the end user for this deliverable?
  • What will make it a success for them?
  • What are the minimum quality criteria that this deliverable must meet in order to be successful? How will they be measured?

In addition to the specific requirements for each deliverable, there will also be some “universal” requirements, usually dictated by the best practices followed in the specific sector or organization.

Suggestions for managing project results

By following these simple suggestions, it is possible to simplify the management of the project deliverables:

  • Define the deliverables before starting work. The addition of deliverables once the work has already begun could lead to a change in the scope and budget of the project.
  • The better the requirements for each deliverable are understood, the easier it will be for stakeholders to accept it.
  • Break down the goal of the project in order to discover the key points.
  • Involve the interested parties in the project start-up meeting and seek their contribution in defining the final deliverables and their acceptance criteria.
  • When collecting the requirements, make sure that they meet the SMART criteria.
  • Separate the deliverables into distinct phases to better follow them.
  • Identify in advance the metrics and data that will be used to measure the acceptability of each deliverable.
  • Identify the deadline for each deliverable.
  • Use a project management software to facilitate project tracking and deliverable management.
  • Maintain a clear distinction between deliverables and milestones, and between process and project deliverables.

Every project manager must develop his own process to define and manage the deliverables in the best possible way. This will depend on the work style and on the limits and capabilities of the project team.

One way to make deliverable management easier is always to use a project management software.

This will simplify the tracking of the deliverables and make sure they meet the acceptance criteria.

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escalation procedures

The escalation procedures: when the risk gets big

The escalation procedures are the ways in which the PM communicates certain changes, with respect to the project forecasts, at the board of directors of the company.

The projects can fail for the most disparate reasons, but probably the main one is the failure to correctly monitor the project.

Beyond the risk management plan and the change control process, escalation procedures are essential in order to manage potentially dangerous situations. They are procedures that can work both during the project, as soon as the problems are identified, or upon completion before the closing declaration of the project.

Having a well-structured project escalation process is essential for a project manager. This process can help him to communicate effectively, accurately, and promptly, in case of problems. The more effective and timely the communication will be, the better the results of the decision-making processes will be.

Structuring an effective escalation process consists of knowing what, when, how, and why taking certain actions to face certain situations.

What is the project escalation

The general meaning of the term escalation is the progressive increase in intensity or spread of a phenomenon – in this case a risk.

In the context of the project, the escalation process is generally a formal process to highlight the problem in question to a higher authority.

For example, if a particular project participant is unwilling or unable to perform a certain activity for which he is responsible, it is necessary to explain the problem to the superior in order to find a solution.

Risks or problems relating to Project goals, resource conflicts, ambiguous roles and responsibilities, disagreements in the field, third-party dependencies… these are just a few known situations that require an escalation procedure.

Such problems require a higher level of intervention because many times the authority, the decision-making process, the resources or the efforts required to solve them go beyond the horizon of a project manager.

Understanding the correct use of the escalation technique is therefore vital for project managers.

The escalation should be treated as a professional act and should be carried out effectively. A project manager should not hesitate to implement an escalation process when dealing with a performing organization.

Proactive escalation and risk communication are far better than unpleasant surprises that can require costly corrective maneuvers to the project.

Moreover, when used correctly, escalation is a relatively simple technique to use most of the time.

Elements of an escalation plan

Here are the five elements that a project manager needs in an escalation plan:

1.  Responsibilities of the team: If it is necessary to rely on the team to inform a stakeholder in case of the discovery of an area at risk or problem, every member of the team must be considered reliable to communicate the problem to the interested parties.

2. Plan management: As project manager, the project manager cannot leave the project when a risk is identified, but must be able to manage it with the established guidelines.

3. Documentation: The escalation plan should have a register similar to a risk log in, which keeps track of the problems, the way they are managed and the priority of each one.

4. Timely reaction: Project managers and leaders must collaborate promptly with teams and stakeholders to ensure that risks are addressed in order to recover from any mishaps or reduce the problem.

5. Communication: Effective communication to and from the team is the key to an escalation plan. It is therefore necessary to ensure that the communication plan is accessible to all during the whole project.
the escalation procedures

How does an effective escalation procedure work?

First and foremost, the project manager must ensure that the necessary analysis and data are performed.

Many impatient project managers, in fact, are too quick to implement an escalation procedure. This causes more inconvenience than those that are solved.

Here are some ways to effectively use the project escalation mechanism:

  • During the initial phases of the project, have a correctly defined escalation matrix, that is based on different areas and levels of escalation. Explicitly document this escalation matrix for the project.

Ensure that project stakeholders are well aware of the escalation process. They need to know what issues should be raised, to whom and within what time frame.

  • Create a culture in which people sincerely believe that it is right to communicate problems promptly to the next level of management without fear of an aggravation of the problem.
  • As a project manager, avoid creating a tense and stressed environment.
  • Avoid frequent and unnecessary escalation. If this happens, in fact, a project manager could be seen as an incompetent and the escalation, when real, may not receive the attention it deserves when it really needs it.
  • Involve only the right – and not all – stakeholders without distinction.
  • Keep the meeting, call or email escalation focused on the problem and not communicate personal and private information.
  • Communicate the escalation describing the context, highlighting the correct data, the gravity of the situation (high / medium / low) and the suggested solutions.
  • Document the escalation and mark all necessary actions.
  • Search for lessons learned provided by similar escalations from past experiences.
  • When the vertical escalation – towards leadership – does not work, it is possible to try to use an horizontal, indirect or innovative method, until the solution or attention required to solve the problem is obtained.
  • Take strong measures only if no escalation procedure works. For example, a strong measure could be the closure of the project.

The escalation procedures: Conclusions

Problems can emerge in any type of project.

Many are small and can be solved within the team, but others can be much larger and have a strong impact on the project.

This is why a formal project escalation process should be always defined, therefore ensuring that management is aware of critical issues in order to enable correct decision making is essential.

The escalation of the project is both an art and a science that also presents a certain amount of risk. If handled badly, in fact, an escalation can lead to violent clashes even on a personal level.

Identifying project situations where escalation is the only way out and having the courage to face these situations professionally by following a structured escalation procedure is the key to helping the project.

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functional organization structure

The functional organizational structures and the Project Managers

The functional organizational structure is a particular type of organization in which a company can decide to organize itself.

The structure of an organization determines how employees, teams, and work responsibilities are organized in order to meet final needs and goals.

In a functional organizational structure, the employees are divided into departments characterized by the similarity of the tasks and the projects are carried out within the individual departmental units.

What is a functional organizational structure?

 A functional organizational structure is composed by project team members allocated according to the different functional units of an organization.

A typical organization has different functional units, such as the Human Resources, Finance, Marketing, Sales, Operations, IT, Administration, etc.

Each unit is managed by a functional manager who reports to the strategic direction of the organization.

In a large organization, the heads of the individual functional units may have other operational managers working under them and reporting directly to them. The larger the organization, the more levels it will have the functional unit.

For example, the HR department can have an HR head manager, under which we find additional HR managers. Each sub-responsible will deal with different aspects of this same department such as hiring, payroll management, staff training, etc.

All these managers work in harmony with the human resources department head in order to achieve the overall goals of the HR department.

Therefore, functional organizational structures must be managed using a hierarchical structure.

In an organization of this type, the execution of a project means the birth of a temporary team. The project team will be composed by members coming from different functional units.

Therefore, the members of the different functional units will deal with the part of the project that concerns them most closely and of which they are directly responsible.

It is not mandatory that all units of an organization are present in a project. The employees will in fact be assigned only on the basis of the requirements of the given project. For some projects, for example, no member from the Marketing department may be needed while more specialists of the HR department may be required.

The advantages of a functional organizational structure

When an organization is structured in a functional way, it is important to know what are the advantages and disadvantages of this choice. Let’s try to clear ideas by listing the advantages and disadvantages of this organization. Let’s start with the advantages:

  • No change. The projects are completed within the basic functional structure of the organization. There is no radical change in the operations and structure of the organization.
  • Flexibility. There is maximum flexibility regarding the use of team members. Specialists from different functional units can be temporarily assigned to the project, after which they return to their normal work. With many specialists available within each functional department, people can be exchanged between different projects with relative ease.
  • In-depth expertise. If the primary responsibility of the project is assigned to the correct functional unit, it is possible to make use of in-depth expertise on the most crucial aspects of the project.
  • Easy post-project transition. Normal career paths are maintained within a functional department. While specialists can make a significant contribution to projects, their functional unit is their professional home, therefore the focus of their professional growth and advancement. The project becomes like a temporary home for the staff member and, once it is completed, the employee returns to his “real” permanent home which is the functional department.

A functional organizational structure is – in general – more suitable for projects that require greater technical experience.

the functional organization structure

Disadvantages of a functional organizational structure

  •  Lack of attention. Each functional unit has its own basic work to do and it happens that project responsibilities are set aside to meet these primary obligations. This becomes even more difficult when the project has different priorities for different units. For example, the marketing department can consider one project urgent while other departments consider it only of secondary importance – if not a real waste of time. This can lead to delays and quality problems.
  • Poor integration. There may be poor integration between functional units. Functional specialists tend to care only about their own project segment and not what is best for the project in general.
  • Slow. In general, more time is needed to complete projects within a functional organizational structure. This is partly attributable to slow response times. Information on the project and decisions must be disseminated through the normal management channels that do not consider horizontal communication between departments. For example, if a staff member of functional unit A needs to solve a problem involving a team member of functional unit C, the problem must first be assumed by the manager of A, who must then coordinate with the manager of C that can then reach team C member in order to get the relevant information and then retransmit it along the same path back to the staff member of A. This, as is easily deducible, is a complicated process and can cause delays and stress.
  • Lack of ownership. The motivation of the people assigned to the project may be weak. The project can be seen as additional work not directly related to one’s professional development. Moreover, since project members only work on one part of the project, they do not identify with the project as a whole. Lack of ownership thus discourages team members who may not engage enough in project-related activities. The result, even in this case, will be a problem of quality of the results.

The role of the project manager within a functional organizational structure

It is a fact: The project manager has less authority over the members of the project team in the functional structure than in any other form of organizational structure.

In fact, he is more of a project coordinator than a real project manager. This is precisely because functional managers maintain complete authority over project team members and project budgets.

Here are the important facts regarding the role of project manager within a functional organizational structure:

  • The functional organization is a traditional organizational structure in which the authorities – and therefore the real managers – are divided according to the functions performed by a particular group of people, such as Finance, HR, Marketing and Purchases, etc.
  • Power and authority are in the hands of the functional manager, not in those of the project manager.
  • The functional manager has the authority to release the resources based on their knowledge and their competence – the project manager is therefore always dependent and pending on the decision of the different functional managers.
  • The resource goes back to the functional manager after completing the project – and in any case it is never “completely” separated.
  • The resources that work in this type of organization are always under the authority of the functional manager, in any situation.
  • The project manager generally has much less power in this type of organization.
  • Project manager skills are much less used in this type of organization.
  • The resource assigned to the role of “project manager” is usually a member of the team within a functional area and does not have a real project manager title or training.
  • The functional manager will control the budget and the “project manager” will act more as a coordinator of the project activities rather than having real project management responsibilities.
  • The resources for the project must be negotiated with the functional managers and the accessibility of these resources will be based on the business conditions.
  • Any type of problem escalation must be reported to the functional manager.
  • Since the “project manager” has low or no authority, the project can last longer compared to other organizational structures. Generally, there is no recognized project management methodology or best practices used.
  • The project manager practically assists the functional manager.
  • The project manager spends a lot of time doing administrative tasks and often works as a PM only part-time.

In conclusion, in a functional organization, project managers have little or no role when it comes to allocate resources and must completely rely on and hope for the cooperation of functional managers in order to obtain the resources they need to complete projects.

Functional managers have complete control over the company’s specialized departments and are responsible for the productivity and results of the unit.

To reach our conclusion, we can say that, in general, the functional organizational structure can work well in a company that mainly carries out repetitive work.

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Portfolio Management

Project Portfolio Management, also known as PPM, is a term used to describe how the – often confused – mix of dependent and connected projects within an organization is managed.

Projects are often seen as independent units, but in reality individual projects are rarely isolated.

The reality is that the projects within an organization are extremely interconnected, so the question is: to which extent are they connected.

The way projects are managed and prioritized in order to ensure their success is precisely the task of Project Portfolio Management.

What is Project Portfolio Management?

Project portfolio management refers to the centralized management of one or more projects in order to achieve the strategic goals of an organization.

In essence, project portfolio management ensures that all approved and ongoing projects meet strategic goals and are efficiently managed in order to obtain optimal results.

It’s a way to bridge the gap between strategy and implementation. It guarantees, in fact, that an organization can exploit more projects to guarantee the global success of a business.

PPM is also generally used by organizations to identify the potential return of a project.

It also makes it possible for companies that want to invest in new projects to see in advance the risks in each of them in order to make careful decisions.

However, the goal of project portfolio management goes much further. Just think of how much Portfolio Management facilitates group communication and ensure that all stakeholders are coordinated.

 The correct management of the project portfolio

If done correctly, the PPM is a valuable tool to get the buy-in of all interested parties in an organization.

Portfolio management allows various stakeholders to get a broader picture of what is happening. It also allows for consistent feedback, understanding, managing and mitigating risks, thus giving less space to possible discrepancies that can often have negative inflences on the success of a project.

Good project portfolio management therefore improves transparency, governance, and responsibilities.

If managed effectively, Portfolio Management helps improve project management processes and methods, reducing failures and improving customer satisfaction.

The PMI reports that organizations with mature PPM processes have successfully completed 35% more of their projects, wasting less time and money.

The advantages and key elements of project portfolio management

In summary, the PPM helps to:

  • Support the management of project requests
  • Improve visibility
  • Improve collaboration
  • Introduce risk management processes
  • Involve stakeholders
  • Improve transparency, governance and responsibility
  • Ensure the realization of benefits
  • Manage resources efficiently
  • Offer a competitive advantage
  • Improve decision-making and problem solving
  • Ensure continuous improvement and evolution of project management processes
  • Attract, recruit, maintain and develop the right talents

The PPM therefore covers a series of areas and practices, here are the three key elements that characterize it:

The key elements of the PPM: Business Strategy

The business strategy is the basis for managing the portfolio of successful projects.

The strategy refers to the long-term direction and scope of an organization. Thanks to the strategy, it is possible for a company to grow and to be competitive.

Obviously, a strategy must be supported by the implementation plans. These plans take into account the capabilities and resources of the organization, external threats, as well as metrics to measure success.

In essence, you can have the best strategy in the world, but if there are no means to achieve it, that strategy has no value.

It is true that projects are fundamental for achieving the agreed strategy, but only when this is clearly defined and communicated.

The key elements of the PPM: Software

Choosing the right software solution is essential for the success of Portfolio Management.

Very often, the absence of integrated software, which combines data from various sources into a single framework, prevents organizations from fully realizing the advantages of the PPM.

When evaluating software solutions, you need to look for a system that is easy to implement and use. It is essential to do this in order to ensure that it is adopted easily and correctly used by end users.

An effective PPM solution provides a unique view of the situation. A unique source of truth about the project that promotes collaboration and tracking of activities.

This is particularly important for team members and project managers working on multiple projects at the same time.

In fact, teams and project managers need optimal levels of knowledge and visibility to fulfill their obligations and take corrective action where necessary.

The key elements of the PPM: Ask the right questions

The connection between business strategy and project portfolio management has been mentioned several times, but how is this relationship managed?

Project portfolio managers need to ask some fundamental questions about all the projects in an organization. Here are some of them:

  • Does each project contribute to the overall achievement of the portfolio?
  • Are the projects dependent on each other?
  • Can any project have a negative impact on other projects?
  • Will successful delivery of all projects produce the desired goal or benefit?
  • Are resources / budgets available to start a new project?
  • Is there a similar project in the portfolio to use as a model?
  • Are stakeholder expectations realistic?
  • Are all members of the organization familiar with strategic goals?
  • Are the available resources used effectively?
  • Is it easy to get the right information about the project to optimize the decision making process?

In an increasingly competitive and stimulating operating environment, companies are required to perform more and more in order to stay competitive in the market.

Projects are clearly the basic tools to provide the solutions and innovations that organizations require to move forward.

Without a general structure, however, and without an overall strategic vision such as that provided by the centralized management of multiple projects, the projects themselves will tend to consume precious resources, like budget and time, often ineffectively.

With an emphasis on long-term strategic goals, organizational requirements and governance, project portfolio management ensures the success of the entire company project.

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software for PA

Project management software for public administration

A software that manages projects for the public administration? It is no longer an utopia.

The digital revolution is influencing the entire system and it is clear that even the dynamics of running a business have changed significantly, as have those of the public administration.

The importance of using Project Management software also in public administration

In both the private and public sectors, it has become crucial to implement a project management software within the system.

The positive effects of having a project management platform that works and fits perfectly into an organization is enormous.

First, a series of basic processes and operations are automated, thus increasing productivity and reducing the risk of human error.

Moreover, project management platforms help to ensure the quality of work.

Last but not least, it is possible to have control of all the costs, budget and timing.

Simply put, project management softwares help achieve goals even within the public administration. The right tool will therefore influence the success of the projects.
the software for PA

How to select project management software in the public administration

There are many types of software for project management, with different functionalities and interfaces, and it is therefore important to be able to understand which one is the right one in each specific situation.

Since every situation is different, there is no software suitable for everyone, especially in the case of public administration, where the needs can be extremely different compared to a private organization.

Here are the steps to follow in order to make sure you make a good decision when navigating the vast market of project management softwares.

1. Outline the needs of the organization

The selection of the right project management software starts with a clear and honest assessment of the needs and requirements of the organization.

First, you need to make sure the team is ready to accept this new solution.

In the Public Administration, in fact, the projects often involve numerous people. It is therefore important to ensure that everyone is on the same page in order to avoid future complications.

It is then necessary to draw up a list of all the necessary functionalities for the project manager and the team, taking considering the goals.

Moreover, the new software should support the current work methodology of the organization, without changing it – or at least not drastically.

2. Look for the various market options

Once all the requirements for the project management software have been outlined, it is time to start searching for the various suppliers on the market.

Probably in the case of the public administration it will also be possible to launch a public competition for the collection of offers.

The more offers you have, the greater will obviously be the possibility of not neglecting any potential platform.

Once all the offers have been collected, the time will come to narrow the selection.

In order to do this, the criteria may vary: price, technology, functionality, graphics, etc.

3. Test-Drive and evaluation

This could be the most difficult part of the whole process.

Here is where you actually go to try out project management platforms – which fit the criteria – to see how much they meet the needs and to proceed to choose the final solution.

The demos show how the product generally works and it is therefore possible to see if the software is really in line with the needs of the organization or not.

At this stage it is important to imitate real processes as much as possible. To this end, all the team members who are going to work with the platform should be involved, their feedback is indeed important. In this step, an accurate assessment is the key.

And let’s not forget about data security, a very important issue for the Public Administration since it deals with sensitive data every day.

It is also important to make sure that the new solution fits the work style, habits and needs.

4. Evaluate software costs

Before making the final decision, it is necessary to consider the costs related to the various offers received. The costs of project management software can vary enormously between one supplier and another.

When evaluating costs, it is a good idea to also consider implementation and adoption costs.

If a solution takes a long time to implement, the advantage it brings could be zero.

We must therefore compare the cost of having that tool with the cost of not having it.

5. Implementation of the new project management software

Once a project management software provider is selected and the contract signed, the process is not finished yet. The time has come to implement the new platform within the office.

The project management software is not just for the project manager, it is for the team.

It is therefore important to draw up a plan that explains how the team will start using the new tool.

It might be a good idea to schedule training sessions, if necessary.

Moreover, you need to make sure that you have all the necessary tools, that the additions are completed, and that all important documents are available within the new platform.

The project manager should not forget be an example for the team by using the new solution as much as possible and answering any questions or concerns about it.

Finally, the project manager must demonstrate the help and support that this new project management software will bring to work in general.

There is no doubt how vast the market is when it comes to project management softwares. The choices and alternatives are indeed numerous.

With these tips however, even the Public Administration will be able to orientate itself and choose the platform that best suits its needs in respect of the good of the citizen, its ultimate goal.

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the monitoring plan

The project monitoring plan

Project monitoring plays a vital role in the decision-making processes of a project manager.

However, despite being an often overlooked method, if put into practice, project monitoring can help the project manager and his team to foresee potential risks and obstacles that if not treated could bring the project in the wrong direction.

What is a project monitoring plan?

 The monitoring plan of a project consists of keeping track and monitoring of all the data related to the project.

Thanks to this activity the Project Manager can always have control of the situation, identify potential problems, and put the corrective actions into practice. The monitoring plan assures that the project is within the field of application and respects the specified deadlines and budget.

In simple terms,

Project monitoring serves to supervise all project activities in order to make sure everything is as planned.

Monitoring is the fourth phase of the five phases of project management according to the PMBOK: starting, planning, execution, monitoring – precisely – and closure.

The monitoring phase should be performed together with the execution of the project, so that to have useful information on the project.

Project monitoring helps to keep track of project performance and progress using key performance indicators (KPIs) given during project planning.

The most important part of this phase is to identify when a change is needed, what the change entails and how to implement it by impacting the minimum possible on the project.

Why is the project monitoring plan important?

 When project managers make important decisions without verified data, it is like they move into a dark room they don’t know with their eyes closed.

Decisions will be based on very little or no evidence. The action could therefore not be very efficient and could only be a waste of time and resources.

This is why it is important to monitor projects diligently and use the data collected to reach rational and logical decisions.

ere are some basic questions to ask during the project monitoring phase:

  • Are the activities performed as planned?
  • Are there unintended consequences that arise as a result of these activities?
  • Are there any elements of the project that need to be modified and if so which ones?
  • What is the impact of these changes?
  • Will these corrective actions lead to the expected results?

Automation in project monitoring

Automated tools and technologies can simplify the project monitoring process.

Most project managers have already adopted project management tools to delegate tasks and monitor their projects.

However, project monitoring is a complex process and here the project manager must always be actively involved.
monitoring plan

The six advantages of project monitoring

Project monitoring offers six advantages:

1. Align progress with the plan

Monitoring project progress will help assess whether the project is in line with the original plan. Moreover, it will help to understand, if the project is going wrong, what corrective actions to apply.

2. Involvement of interested parties

Monitoring improves stakeholder engagement. If a problem or risk is detected too late, the project sponsor is often powerless. With regular monitoring and clear communication, it will be easier to deal with risks and contingencies.

3. Customer satisfaction

Open communication and feedback increase the likelihood that the final result will meet expectations, thus considering the project a success.

4. Team motivation and responsibility.

Team motivation will have fluctuations during the execution of the project. By monitoring progress and completing the milestones, the team will have clear goals for the project.

5. Management of external suppliers.

Communication is essential for any project, especially when working with external suppliers. Monitoring the performance of these resources will help meet key deadlines, manage the given budget, and take into account unexpected project planning delays. Similarly, it is necessary to share project changes with suppliers, so that they can update their internal plans and be available accordingly.

6. Continuous learning and improvement.

Monitoring represents an ideal opportunity for continuous learning and improvement, as well as planning and project execution. Once the project is finished, it is essential to document the lessons learned, a task that is easier if the project was monitored during the execution.

Methods and techniques for monitoring the project

Project monitoring starts already during the project planning phase.

During this phase, the project manager must decide which are the factors that will define the success of the project. He will also determine how to measure the target using key performance indicators (KPIs).

In this phase, it is also necessary to consult the team and the sponsor of the project.

The KPIs used to track and measure success can be, for example:

  • Cycle time: the time required to complete an activity.
  • Number of program adjustments: how often project planning has been changed.
  • Budget variance: how much the actual budget varies from the project budget
  • Number of errors: the number of times the job needs to be repeated.

Moreover, it is possible to keep track of customer satisfaction, planned working hours compared to the actual ones, etc.

Choosing KPIs is therefore the first piece of the puzzle.

 The 6 phases of project monitoring

1. Identify the goals of the project

The definition of the program goals begins with the answer to three questions:

  • What problem is the project trying to solve?
  • What steps are taken to solve this problem?
  • How will the project team know when the project was successful in solving the problem?

Answering these questions will help identify what the project should do and how the team, and especially the project manager, will know if it was a success or not.

2. Define the indicators

Once the project goals have been defined, it is time to define the indicators to track progress towards achieving them. The indicators trace the progress of the project and help to answer the question “Are the activities implemented as planned?”

3. Define data collection methods and timing

Now it is time to decide the methods for data collection and how often the data will be collected. The method chosen will have important implications for project monitoring. In fact, a wrong method could lead to a wrong perception.

4. Identify roles and responsibilities during monitoring

It is important to decide who is responsible for collecting data for each indicator from the early stages of planning. Data management roles must be clearly decided so that everyone is on the same page.

5. Create an analysis plan and report templates

Once all the data has been collected, someone will have to draw up a table of results for internal review and external reporting. The project monitoring plan should therefore include details on what data will be analyzed and how the results will be presented.

6. Plan data disclosure

The last element of the monitoring plan describes how and to whom the data will be given. For example, a project team might want to review data on a monthly basis in order to make policy decisions and develop future work plans, while other stakeholders may want to review the data every quarter. These options should therefore be discussed with stakeholders in order to determine reasonable expectations for data review and to develop dissemination plans at the beginning of the project.

These six steps are all you need to set up a good quality project monitoring plan.

By consistently applying these steps, each project manager will be able to see how his project is going. Above all, he will be able to intervene promptly to correct the course when necessary, avoiding inappropriate failures.

Still in doubt? Well you can try yourself with a free demo.

industry 4.0

Project management in Industry 4.0

Project management in Industry 4.0 is destined to play a key role. In this article we will try to explain why.

The concept of Industry 4.0 was born in Germany, in 2011, during the Hannover Fair. This so-called fourth industrial revolution introduces what has been called the “smart factory“. It is a factory where cyber-physical systems monitor the physical processes of the factory and are able to make decentralized decisions.

The basic error that involves project management in Industry 4.0

Industry 4.0 therefore leads to a new industrial automation that integrates innovative technologies in order to improve working conditions, so increasing productivity.

All this is however closely correlated with the Internet of Things, the Cyber-Physical System, information and communication technology, Enterprise Architecture, and Enterprise Integration .

Although project management is a well-known challenge in Industry 4.0, this aspect of global network connection is sometimes ignored. Most studies, in fact, focus only on technological aspects.

As you can easily understand this is an important error that can lead to visions disconnected from reality.

The importance of this aspect in Industry 4.0 is evident. Consider the fact that networks are growing and the Internet is used as an important source of information and communication – sometimes primary. Moreover, virtual representations of the real world are created and information systems are increasingly being developed. In short, we reach levels where these systems are able to act independently and even make their own decisions.

Managing an innovation environment like Industry 4.0 therefore requires a creative and completely new way of thinking.

How the processes have changed with the advent of Industry 4.0 and what repercussions they have had on Project Management

For half a decade, the concept of Industry 4.0 has had time to spread throughout the business and industrial world. We have already discussed this topoc in the article on disruptive technologies.

Production processes  within companies have changed during this period and continue to develop following this direction.

The advantages of digitization are obviously innumerable. They include simplified data management, more opportunities to create less expensive and more customized solutions, automation of labor-intensive processes and / or the introduction of measures that simplify these processes.

Thanks to digitization, benefits that are achievable both in conventional manufacturing companies as well as in service companies can be obtained.

The theme of Industry 4.0 is therefore always present in project management. In fact, the management of the most important projects, in this historical period, concerns companies that are going through digitalisation (for some advice you can read here) and must be able to manage this process.

All this is also part of the project managers‘ tasks, who are interested and “affected” by digitalisation. It will therefore be their job to organize their internal structures and their work using those digital products.
the 4.0 industry

Digitization in Project Management

Project management must respond faster and faster and operate more proactively within the digital world.

But, in concrete, what does this mean for a project manager?

First, we all know that most, if not all, project managers use a smartphone. This allows them to have constant access to e-mails, to Internet, to instant messaging services, to cameras, plans and reports.

All company statements can be reviewed directly during a meeting, for example, or while waiting at the airport during a business trip.

Has the appropriate plan been received by a team member? Has the technical sheet been sent to the supervisory office? Can all this information be solved and controlled directly thanks to digitization? Yes of course!

Some examples of how the Project Manager’s work changes with the advent of Industry 4.0 and digitization

Let’s take the example of a project manager working in the construction sector. He can use a tablet and write reports during site inspections. He can thus take pictures of a damaged or incorrectly labeled door or cable and then insert them directly into the report together with the relevant annotations.

In this way, in essence, it is possible to generate a site inspection report in an extremely simple, fast and effective way. It is also possible to send it immediately to all interested parties.

Digitization therefore saves time and…a large amount of telephone calls.

Digitization also concerns project management platforms, which have become common in many areas of project management.

 The advantages of the Digitized Project Management Platforms

Indeed, there are many different suppliers of these platforms and it is also possible to create personalized ones.

Such platforms can be individually created or customized for each project and designed to include different functions based on the activity or project.

Information such as plans, meeting reports, photographs, contracts, construction plans, invoices, data sheets, specifications, drawings, and correspondence can be stored here.

Moreover, each user can receive information when a new report is published within a specific category.

Invitations to meetings can also be sent via project platforms, which can therefore act as planning tools.

Meeting reports and project plans can be uploaded and can also be annotated, authorized, and modified without the need of pen and paper.

You can always determine which is the most recent version of the plan and see how many changes have been made and by whom.

For sure paper will continue to play an important role in project management. In many cases, it is simply inevitable and advisable to also print something in order to allow project participants to write notes.

This also allows to compare the drawings or read the printed versions of the reports because nobody is willing to spend the entire working day staring at a screen.

However, it is certainly true to say that digitization simplifies many things and will become increasingly indispensable in the future, also and especially in project management.

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the pm in PA

Project management in the Public Administration

Like in the commercial sector, where organizations adapt to the changing needs of the market, even public administrations are forced to adapt public services not only to legislative changes, but also to the perception that citizens have.

The “customers of public institutions”, citizens and legal persons, as well as those of commercial activities, in fact require fast, cheap and quality services.

The situation in the private sector is easier to manage, as there is at least one basic measure of success: profit analysis.

Public authorities, regions, cities and municipalities are instead obliged to work diligently in order to achieve a certain level of efficiency and to compare themselves with other public agencies.

The goal is that this level of services is equal for all organizations.

The purpose of the functioning of public sector organizations is in particular to satisfy the needs of others rather than their own. For public administrations, social goals should balance the economic ones.

These are mainly services that provide people with basic social assistance services such as health, safety, housing, education, cultural and social activities, etc.

The public sector is represented by the public administration, which includes a set of institutions with central or territorial jurisdiction.

The public administration is the backbone of a modern state, just as banks are the backbone of the economy.

It is therefore necessary to effectively coordinate this central government and here the project management in the Public Administration comes into play.
pm in PA

Project Management and its meaning

 According to the most recognized global professional association in project management, the Project Management Institute (PMI), project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and technologies to the activities in order to satisfy the requirements of a specific project.

To satisfy the specific goals of the project, three fundamental factors must be defined for the management of the project:

  • Time: the limit for planning the sequence of activities,
  • Resources: both people, as members of the project team, as well as materials, such as tools or machines.
  • Cost: the use of financial resources over time.

Depending on the complexity, the projects are divided into:

  • Investment projects,
  • Non-investment projects
  • Mixed projects.

In the case of the Public Administration, we mainly talk about large projects that are the object of investments.

The investment project is rather demanding and involves a set of technical and economic studies necessary for its preparation, implementation, financing and efficient operation.

Non-investment projects are also called “soft projects”. These are projects focused on innovation, know-how, consultancy, etc. Processing is generally simpler than in the case of investment projects.

There is also a third type of projects, the mixed one. Mixed projects are those that include both the investment and non-investment part of the project.

Differences and similarities between the public sector and the private sector

The similarities between the two sectors mainly refer to management functions, while the differences focus on the conditions or constraints in which the management operates.

The main distinction between public and private organizations is their ownership. Unlike private companies, owned by entrepreneurs or shareholders, public organizations are the collective property of members of political communities.

Here are some additional differences between public and private organizations:

  • Complexity: public organizations are confronted with a wider variety of stakeholders, each of which places demands and constraints on managers;
  • Permeability: public organizations are “open systems” easily influenced by external events;
  • Instability: political constraints determine frequent changes in politics and the imposition of short time horizons;
  • Absence of competitive pressures: public organizations generally have few competitors. Even when competition is present, public managers often enjoy a dominant position in the market, such as in education and healthcare.

It is also emphasized that the goals of public organizations are more vague than those of their private counterparts, because organizational goals are imposed through the political process, rather than selected by the managers themselves.

Another feature of public organizations is that they usually have more formal procedures for decision making and are less flexible and more risk averse.

Moreover, economic efficiency cannot be used by public managers as a primary decision criterion, due to the mission that public organizations have. This means that public managers should follow public service ethics in their activities.

The role and skills of the Project Manager in the Public Administration

 Project managers play a crucial role in all types of projects and have a key role that determines the success or failure of such projects.

However, progress in public sector projection is creating a growing need to develop skills for public sector project managers.

Their role, in fact, is unique and very particular. This is also because in public projects we are always dealing with multiple and different stakeholders whose opinions can strongly influence the project.

Public sector project managers work in a different environment compared to the private one. Very often the public environment is not familiar with results-oriented project management. Project Managers are indeed often constantly involved in the management of political interference when they carry out projects.

Project management in the public sector therefore plays a key role in how society as a whole behaves. Here, project managers not only deal with the ability to successfully conclude a project in the right time, but they go further.

The importance of ethics for the public sector project manager

The public sector project manager must therefore possess the so-called “Skills Triangle“, which includes similar types of skills – but not identical – to those of the private sector: technic, leadership and ethics.

Without having an ethical competence, which refers to conforming to moral values and norms, project managers cannot use their professional skills in the right way within the public sector.

There are proper training programs and academic curricula tailored to the needs of public sector employers. These are paths that can help the project manager to do his job even more efficiently, in favor of the public good.

We have the tools, we have the culture.

Project chat: how to use it to motivate the team

Using a Team chat during a project to speed up communications and improve results? It can not only be useful, but I would say that today it has become almost indispensable.

From the pictograms carved in stone to the latest chat apps, humans find always better and faster ways to communicate.

Not surprisingly, MSN Messenger, for example, was one of the most used apps in the 90s, while messaging apps like WhatsApp and LINE are becoming a constant in our smartphones.

There is nothing to do, we like to talk and communicate, especially quickly.

For a project team, e-mails require a generally relatively long response time and an object. Video calls, on the other hand, can be frustrating to plan, just like a face-to-face meeting. Project chat, on the other hand, simplifies this.

 Writing a quick message and getting an answer just as quick – or even an emoji – is often used to reassure and continue with the job, perhaps with a smile on the face. Nothing complicated and no significant loss of time.

That’s how we talk to friends and relatives today! So why not apply this method even in the workplace?


Today’s best chat apps, let you organize group conversations on multiple topics. And not only that… they also allow you to search in the organization’s archives to check if a question has already been answered and accelerate interactions with robots by exploiting the integrations present in the apps themselves and in the software.

Why use project chat within the team?

 There are so many ways to talk to the team, from e-mails to traditional phone calls, from video conferences to social networks. SMS may also work in some cases.

A Group chat is similar to the aforementioned tools, but it has something extra. Its main advantage is that it keeps all the organization’s communications in one place and makes it easy for everyone to talk. And if you need to say something to a single member of the team without disturbing others? No problem! Communication can take place through group chats but also through private chats.

Through the use of chats as a working tool, it is no longer necessary to search for a member’s e-mail address therefore wasting time. Everyone is just a touch away, even on the phone.

If a call may seem simpler, think that group chats often include the option of conference calls, video chats and screen sharing tools that make this way even more effective.

Usually, if you use the chat tool as a working tool, it is advisable to create both a general group for casual discussions, aas well as groups for each work team. Groups can also be created for specific topics that the organization needs to discuss. It often happens that you also have one or more groups of fun and light topics like jokes, music, birthdays, etc. These groups, apparently far from the working purposes, are instead often useful in creating harmony within the team.

Groups are generally public and everyone can participate. Thanks to private messages, on the other hand, it is possible to communicate directly with a colleague or chat with a smaller and more reserved group. Often, these small groups are created only temporarily in order to solve small contingent problems that involve few elements of the Team.

Chats therefore offer a place for everything, from casual conversations to private messages. This will save time and hopefully stimulate productive discussions. The chats, as already mentioned, sometimes also become playful tools. For example, it may happen that foolish wars with GIFs start, which will keep the organization a fun place to work, increasing motivation and harmony in the office.

Although a chat can be an extraordinarily effective element for a project group, it is essential to understand that it does not replace e-mail. Thinking of using the Team chat for everything can be a serious mistake and it is therefore useful and necessary to know well when to use one and when to use the other tool.

Let’s see what are the advantages that can be obtained by starting to communicate through a chat in a project group:

  • Drastically reduce the volume of e-mail, even up to half. By sending messages directly through the chat, you will save time and the team will be much more productive. Chat conversations are much more focused on the activity in question and the people involved will be reached directly.
  • Organize information with the corresponding activity (dedicated chats), so that communication is effective and direct as it covers a specific activity.
  • Keep active, open communication with all those involved in the project as it is easy to use, comfortable and accessible to all.
  • The meetings are targeted and more effective. Anything that can be clarified through the chat will mean hours of effective work instead of unnecessary meetings.
  • Promote monitoring and planning control. If the team enters and follows the conversations about the activities, it will have the project at hand. It will be easier and more convenient to see what you are talking about and, in this way, follow the process and planning. This will avoid unnecessary questions, doubts and wasted time.

project chat

Optimal communication with a chat tool

It sometimes happens that some members of the Team do not how to properly use a chat. It is therefore useful to establish which are the fundamental characteristics for an optimal communication with this instrument:

  • Private Chat: allows you to quickly connect with any team member and communicate privately.
  • Group Chat: useful for not writing an e-mail and putting all interested parties in CC. This places an update on the project in a space visible by the entire team and you can be sure that all the right people can access the communication and be informed immediately.
  • Project Chat: every project that you manage should have a dedicated chat so that conversations can be organized together with the content of the project. For larger projects, there must be a way to connect chat threads to specific resources, such as activities, files, diagrams or text.
  • Video / Audio Team Chat: when detailed discussions are required to happen quickly, embedded video conferencing is an essential requirement.
  • Visual indicators: Simple visual cues such as “full percentage” indicators of activity, out-of-office icons or emoji feedback to comments, help ensure that the team is aware of progress and updates are noticed.
  • Triage: first thing in the morning, or when you return from a vacation, you must first deal with the important things. A clear view of all unread notifications and the projects they come from will help the person decide what he or she has to focus on and what can wait.

In general, if the team or organization needs a dedicated chat app or a project tool  that also includes the chat option, there are a myriad of possibilities on the market.

The simplest tools allow you to organize chats in conversations and talk in real time, while the more advanced ones allow you to automate conversations with bots and make video calls when necessary.

Each organization will make its choice.

We have the tools, we have the culture.

functional organization

The functional organization

Every organization works on some basic principles and on a particular structure.

Working according to the principles of this particular organizational structure allows the achievement of a common goal, as well as the growth and development of the organization and the employees that are part of it.

There are different types of organizational structures and the functional organizational structure is one of these. And we will talk about this in this article.

What is a functional organization?

A functional organization is the most common type of organizational structure.

This is the organization divided into smaller groups based on functions such as IT, finance or marketing.

This departmentalization allows greater operational efficiency because the employees have their specific skills and knowledge to share within the group.

These people are supervised by a functional manager, who has experience in the same field.

This experience helps him use employees’ skills effectively, which ultimately helps organizations achieve their business goals.

In a functional organizational structure, the reporting relationships are grouped according to the specialty or functional area.

The purpose of the separation of the areas is has the purpose of letting the individuals deal with and worry about different and specific activities.

Here the authority, regarding for example the allocation of the budget, the allocation of resources, the decision-making process, etc. remains in the hands of the functional manager.

Project Manager vs Functional Manager

Usually, in this type of organization the role of the Project Manager is limited, since he will need the permission of the functional manager to satisfy his requests.

The functional organizational structure is generally suitable for companies producing standard products or goods, such as manufacturing industries.

Let’s consider a company that designs and sells clothing and fashion accessories, for example, and let’s imagine its creative department that carries out the projects.

The creative department will do its specific thing and will not focus on everything. Instead, it will be the task of the accounting and finance department to keep track of the amount spent on design creation and mass production. The sales and marketing department will be responsible for presenting specific plans for the sale of the products and for attracting the consumer, while the human resources department must ensure that the employees work to their maximum potential.

All these activities will be governed by the president and mid-level managers of the organization. More products will lead to the creation of more departments. Each department will have many other functions to perform, but these are the basic functions of each department.
the functional organization

The advantages of a Functional Organization

Every type of organization has its strengths and its shortcomings. Obviously, this also happens in the case of a functional organization. Let’s start from the merits:

  • The team is run by an experienced person with a high skill and ability, who can adequately understand and review the entire job.
  • Team members have the opportunity to work with other people in the same field. This allows the sharing of thoughts and knowledge and allows the learning of new special skills.
  • Team members have the opportunity to make a career and then be promoted within their functional areas. This can be a great reason to stay in the workplace for a long time.
  • Thanks to people’s skills, workers with specialized skills can perform tasks quickly, efficiently and with greater security, while reducing work-related errors.
  • Functional organizations generally represent an optimal type of structure for small businesses focused on the production or supply of individual products or services, because they have the possibility of maximizing performance. Peer cooperation within the different units is encouraged through supervision and coordination. Specialization, therefore, leads to operational efficiencies and improves productivity levels.
  • The hierarchy is obvious and employees must not report to multiple supervisors running the risk of generating confusion. Each employee reports to his functional manager and this reduces the number of communication channels.
  • There is no duplication of work because every department and every employee has a fixed job responsibility.
  • Cooperation and communication are generally excellent within the department.

The shortcomings of a Functional Organization

Let us now examine the shortcomings of this type of organization:

  • In a functional organization the grouping of units is carried out based on their special skills, abilities, tasks or roles. This will allow the entire team to operate correctly. However, business strategies and the level of bureaucracy make it difficult to respond to changes immediately. This is why this type of organization is quite rigid.
  • Another disadvantage of the functional organizational structure is that these functional groups may not be able to communicate more often than scheduled, thus reducing flexibility and innovation.
  • When a company uses this type of structure, people are grouped based on their knowledge and skills. This therefore requires a management system that allows the promotion, development and visibility of individual skills in each functional area.
  • The lack or inefficient horizontal coordination within the department could give rise to management problems. The motivation of the employees is strongly influenced by the lack of innovation and by the narrow visions of the organizational goals. This structure can be rigid and standardized methods and high formalization can hinder or prevent a faster decision-making process.
  • Another weakness of the functional organizational structure may be the lack of coordination of the unit. As a result, although functional units may have a better level of efficiency, they may have difficulty working well together, and cooperation may therefore be compromised. Moreover, some people may be particularly “territorial” and individualistic and may not be willing to cooperate. These unhealthy coordination can lead to delays, unfulfilled commitments, competing interests, waste of time and, in general, delays in completing the project.
  • Employees may feel bored due to the type of monotonous and repetitive work and may lose enthusiasm for the job.
  • Conflicts can arise if the performance appraisal system is not properly managed. For example, an employee can perceive the promotion of a colleague with lower skills as unjust and this could lead to demotivation.
  • A highly qualified employee costs more.
  • Departments have an egocentric mentality. The functional manager pays more attention to his own department and usually does not care about the other.
  • Employees may have little concern and knowledge of events outside of their department. This causes obstacles to communication and cooperation.
  • Generally, the functional manager makes autocratic decisions without consulting his team members. This may not always work for the organization.
  • When the organization gets bigger, functional areas can become difficult to manage due to their size. Each department can begin to behave as a small company with its facilities, its culture and its management style.
  • Functional departments can be distracted by departmental goals and focus on them rather than the organization’s overall goal.


To conclude, it can be said that among the various types of organizational structures a functional organizational structure is more suitable for organizations that do not change their working methods and function too often and where there is no intense competition in the market that could require quick action.

This structure requires a very powerful management, capable of resolving conflicts and internal problems. In essence, a management that allows employees to function as a team, despite the specialized departments working like a “watertight compartment”.

Moreover, it is ideal in a smaller environment where there is only one product or service to offer. For a larger organization, this structure may not be really effective.

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emergency plan

The emergency plan in project management

The emergency plan in a project is like the fire prevention plan for a supermarket. You can’t miss it!

Uncertainty is an intrinsic part of all projects. The way in which the Project Manager and his team manage the emergency and the change seriously affects the activities and the very success of the project.

All projects have a level of uncertainty. Otherwise no figure would be needed to manage risks and emergencies.

This is why the most astute Project Managers structure the projects in such a way as to predict uncertainty and change rather than looking for ways to avoid unexpected surprises.

This is why the estimates based on the best / worst scenarios are reliable and effective. It is precisely on these estimates that, in order to avoid surprises, an emergency plan is drawn up for managing a project.

 The proactivity of the PM in the realization of a project emergency plan

It is more productive to be proactive rather than reactive. Anticipating unforeseen circumstances is therefore a necessity for a Project Manager.

With IT projects for example, customer needs can evolve over time and, with the evolution of technology, even overnight, this fact could represent a real emergency for the PM.

In construction projects, instead, the project could also be approved, but important delays in the delivery of the material might occur during the execution of the work. These delays would inevitably affect the end date of the project, representing also an emergency.

Basically, the competent Project Managers establish processes in advance in order to deal with these emergencies and the resulting changes.

In this way, they can respond to emergencies with the voice of experience rather than with reaction. Adaptability offers a better guarantee to the customer.

An agile mentality makes it possible to evaluate, listen, and communicate changes better, thus also creating a relationship of trust with the team, stakeholders, and the end customer.

Changes can take place at virtually every point in the life cycle of project management.

Having strategies in order to effectively deal with changes and manage emergencies is the most efficient way to stay focused on the success of the project and on the final goals, even in the face of what can sometimes seem like a constant change of direction.

Risk and emergency management

Here are some tips that Project Managers use in order to manage risks and emergencies in projects.

1. Avoid the risk or emergency

If it is already clear from the beginning that the activity of a project can have serious consequences, it is better to avoid it. For example, the simultaneous use of a production process for two products can compromise project planning. Instead, a project manager can avoid this risk by choosing a sequential production process.

2. Mitigate the risk or emergency

Look for all possible ways to reduce the occurrence of a risk. For example, you can decide to use a simplified and known production process if a more innovative and expensive production process can take longer and brings with it a high level of uncertainty about the final result.

3. Transfer the risk or emergency

To control the risk, it is possible to transfer it to an external supplier. For example, if the number of activities of a team is too large to allow their completion on time by internal resources, part of the activities can be subcontracted to an external supplier.

4. Learn from risks and emergencies

Not all risks and emergencies represent something negative. These can also open the door to opportunities. For example, if after analyzing the risks of a project, one realizes that the subsystem of a program can be commercialized, one can decide to reassign it to a part of the teams in order to develop it even more. The removal of part of the team from a project can represent an additional risk, but in this case, it is possible to compensate it with the opportunity achieved.
the emergency plan

 Lead the team through the change process

The team is fundamental to the success of any project, so it is essential to actively involve it in the emergency plan and in the management of process changes.

Here are 5 ways the Project Manager can quickly help the team during this process:

  1. Be open about emergencies, risks, and changes that will inevitably occur.
  2. Be open about the process. Most team members clearly will not know what will happen and what is expected of them until they have been notified. It is possible to organize a briefing where everyone can learn about their role within the emergency and change plan.
  3. Simplify as much as possible. The change in the project is often, at best, a controlled chaos. The team can consider an emergency, and the consequent changes, as upsetting and for this reason, it is necessary that the process is as simplified as possible. We must not forget that the team considers the Project Manager as a trusted guide.
  4. Be ready to help. A new way of working takes time to accept it and integrate successfully. The Project Manager must let the team know clearly that he is there to help them, at any time, in order to overcome the emergency together, just like a team.
  5. Don’t be afraid to say no. Not all changes in response to an emergency can be sensible proposals. The Project Manager must therefore let the team know that if the latter feels firmly convinced that a change is not the right decision for the Project, he will stand close to them and discuss the choice with the change applicant.

Not being able to manage the emergency and the change that inevitably follows is one of the first reasons why a project can go completely in disarray.

Having the right information and processes even before starting a Project and drawing up an emergency plan with the related possible changes, can make it possible to face risks and emergencies in a controlled, intelligent, and advantageous way for all those involved. This is certainly the way to bring the project to success.

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agile coaching

Agile coaching: a fundamental approach for new Project Managers

An Agile coach helps organizations with the implementation of the Agile methodology. It helps developing agile teams and facilitates organizational change culture in order to ensure effective results.

The goal of an Agile coach is to provide the right knowledge to an agile team. The teams will have to receive the right training and will have to know adequately the indispensable tools. The goal is to ensure that members are able to use this method to its full potential.

Agile coaches can be employees of an organization or work as external contractors.

Organizational benefits of an Agile coach

The implementation of an Agile methodology can help simplify the processes but, as many will know, it is not easy to make changes in an organization.

Typical challenges faced during a change can be grouped into five categories:

  1. Primary problems: any elementary situation that has to be solved. For example, the organization wants to increase customer satisfaction. To achieve this, it may be necessary to reduce marketing time or maintain competitiveness in a dynamic market, etc.
  1. Awareness / inattention. People are not aware of what they do not know and, for this reason, they need help to have a clear understanding of problems, gaps and opportunities that allow improvement. In Agile, awareness is an indispensable condition for promoting continuous improvement.
  1. Low sense of belonging. Lack of involvement and participation is one of the most typical challenges for many organizations. For this reason, many companies need help to create elements that foster collaboration and increase the sense of belonging of their employees.
  1. Skills gap. Perhaps people will need a different set of skills in order to reach the desired state. Most of the time, change means adopting different behaviors and new ways of working. People have to learn different responsibilities and activities during an Agile transformation. For this reason, they will need assistance and support in order to develop these new skills.
  1. Organizational barriers. Business agility is a great desire for most organizations. As a result, companies must optimize their processes and organizational projects in order to achieve greater flexibility, adaptability, and responsiveness to unpredictable changes. This is why companies need help to identify and overcome barriers during their path of improvement.

Encouraging everyone to accept a new methodology requires significant effort from the management.

The agile coach in support of the Team

Having a coach able to guide and direct the change in the right way, can help a team to overcome the difficult phases, especially in the first period of change.

An Agile coach will allow the company to maintain its activities while at the same time committing itself to create an agile team. These factors will help save time, money and resources in the long term.

Moreover, another task of the Agile coach is to understand the reasons why, in certain cases, Agile does not provide the expected results. It will be his task to find possible solutions to remedy the situation.

Before the Agile coach finishes his job, the goal is to have a fully functioning agile team ready to embrace the new methodology.

The Agile methodology is indeed easy to understand, but difficult to master. The consequence is that many Project Managers encounter problems during the transition.

Most of these problems are due to unrealistic expectations. There is a tendency to overestimate the simplicity of implementing Agile within a team, a department or within the entire organization.

The role of the Agile coach

The role of an Agile coach can be temporary or permanent, depending on the needs of the organization.

Larger companies, with more teams, may want to keep this figure within the human resources department. His presence will be useful to help supervise the application of the agile methodology in the long term, but the position is generally temporary.

For most companies, especially medium and small organizations, it is more useful and economical to hire an Agile coach temporarily in order to help make the team work in an agile manner.

There is no valid strategy when it comes to agile adaptation, so every organization will have unique needs in the process.

Agile coaches take advantage of their background in project management, IT and other related fields in order to understand what will work for a particular organization and what will not.

The essential qualities for an agile coaching

In particular, there are five qualities necessary for effective Agile Coaching:

1. Knowledge of everything that surrounds the Agile methodology

Agile is not a standard recipe, but a complete philosophy. It is a mentality in which change is not the goal, but rather the starting point. The Agile methodology uses different methods and frameworks, such as Lean and Scrum for example. An Agile Coach must therefore be aware of all these different methods and know how and when to use them.

2. Possessing an open mind

The study following the Agile methodology is relatively new and is still under development. For this reason, an Agile coach must be constantly open to new techniques, tools and insights.

3. Understanding and empathy

An Agile coach does not say what should happen or what went wrong, but helps the team to get more information about their performance and take responsibility for it. This only works if this figure is able to gain the complete trust of the members of the team. This is why an Agile Coach needs a good understanding and empathy.
the agile coaching

4. Addressing conflicts

In an Agile environment, self-managed teams have the space to do their jobs as they want.

This also means that they must be able to resolve tensions and differences of opinion within the group itself. In this case, there is no manager to intervene and calm the situation.

Conflicts in the workplace are not a disaster in themselves, as long as they don’t get out of hand. The Agile coach therefore has an important role in identifying open or underlying tensions and giving the opportunity to speak about it correctly.

5. Patience and perseverance

Developing an agile mentality is usually a difficult process and some people need more time than others.

An agile coach must be able to focus on the things that are going well and, above all, keep looking forward. Changes always take longer than what one thinks.


Agile Coaching is therefore a vast activity that aims to allow improvements in organizations and helps people to evolve their mentality and behavior.

The task is not at all simple and can vary greatly depending on the context. There are more forms and techniques to do it and it will be the Agile Coach’s ability to find the best way in every situation.


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communication plan

The communication plan for project management

Successful projects are based on effective communication. This is why a communication plan is so important.

The level of quality with which one communicates during the life cycle of a project can make the difference between success and failure.

According to the Project Management Institute – PMI, high performance organizations, ie those organizations that have completed at least 80% of the projects on time and in the budget, had in act communication plans that are at least twice as effective as their counterparts who achieve lower performance.

Do you still have doubts about the importance of a good communication plan in managing a project?

What is a project’s communication plan?

The project communication plan is a simple tool that allows you to communicate effectively about a project with the client, the team and other stakeholders.

The plan establishes clear guidelines on how information will be shared. It also establishes who is responsible and how everyone is connected to project communication.

The communication plan of the project also determines who will receive the communication, how, when and how often the information should be transmitted.

If we wanted to indicate a reference model for a project communication plan, we would have to include:

  • The purpose or goals of the communication plan
  • Information on interested parties and their roles
  • The types of information that must be shared with interested parties
  • The methods used to communicate
  • The frequency with which each stakeholder would like to receive information

Why is a project communication plan important?

Poor communication contributes to the failure of the project. This shortcoming, therefore, could mean an important financial loss for the company.

A communication plan for project management will keep the project on track because:

  • Creates written documentation that the team can refer to
  • Establishes expectations about when stakeholders will receive updates
  • Increases the visibility of stakeholders in the project
  • Provides opportunities for interested parties to provide feedback, which can help the team identify problems and risks early
  • Increases productivity during meetings

Clearly, not all projects are the same and, therefore, each project’s communication plan can be considered unique. In fact, no plan will ever be identical to another.

This is one more reason why:

It is important to think well about the communication plan already during the creation of the project plan.

Large projects have different communication needs than small projects. The same applies to projects with different groups of stakeholders compared to projects with a single group. Those projects will still be different depending on whether the team works remotely or within the same building.

Projects with different goals, budgets, deadlines, resources require a tailored communication. This is an aspect to keep in mind when creating a project communication plan.

The creation of the project communication plan

In order to create an effective and complete communication plan, it is important to take the time to collect input, information and wishes from all stakeholder groups.

It is also essential to be aware that it may be necessary to make changes to the plan as the project progresses.

 Here are the 5 key steps to creating a good project communication plan

1) Plan the scope and the approach

It is important that the plan is broadly described, including the reasons for its existence and the general description of how it will be implemented within the project.

This part could be thought of as a summary section.

2) Communication goals

The Project Manager will also have to explain what he expects to achieve by following the communication plan. In fact, in every project, there are different goals.

In general, the goals should focus on the education and updating of anyone interested in the project.

3) Communication roles

It is highly unlikely that communication will come from one single person throughout the entire project. Therefore, all roles and related communication responsibilities must be clearly defined.

Here are some roles to consider:

  • Sponsor of the project
  • Project Management
  • Leadership / Management Team
  • Member of the project team

 4) Communication tools and methods

the communication plan

Which tools will be used and how a message will be delivered are aspects that will vary from project to project.

The preferred tools and methods should be those in which the receiving group will have the best chance of understanding.

Often, we make the mistake of taking into consideration only the peculiarities of those who must transmit the message. It is essential, however, to always keep the receiver in mind when developing the content of the communication and the method by which the message will be delivered.

Methods that provide opportunities for people to ask questions or provide feedback can give a real and added value to the project.

Here are some examples:

  • Meetings: Although project meetings are viewed with little enthusiasm, they are a great way to bring the team together and solve problems.
  • Project reports: Reports could include project progress, real-time control panels, risks and resources, etc.
  • E-mail: probably the most common form of project communication. Although e-mail is a useful way to keep track of conversations and decisions, it is important to encourage the team to talk, in fact it is often a more efficient method.
  • Discussion forums: discussion forums and online forums help teams collaborate and share knowledge and are especially useful for remote teams.
  • Document repositories: create a central position for project documents to ensure that everyone is working from the same sources.
  • Surveys: the surveys are a quick way to check with the team during the execution of the project and the lessons learned once the project is finished.

5) Measurement of the success of the communication plan

Given the importance of communication for a project, it is important to monitor and analyze the plan at regular intervals.

During the project life cycle it is important to see what works, what does not and if and which changes are needed.

Moreover, it is useful to ask stakeholders and the team for their contribution, and to document the findings to improve future plans.


It is important to remember that each project will have a different communicative impact and, therefore, a different communication management plan.

Working from a basic structure, like the one explained in this article, will help to ensure that all key components are included.

The proactive creation of the communication management plan and the action plan for communicating  at the beginning of the project will require some effort. However, this effort will be very useful for managing a project that works effectively and efficiently.

Having a project communication plan will save a lot of headaches and doubts and give the project more chances for success.

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choose a software

How to choose a project management software for the third sector

Choosing a project management software is never easy, especially if we are talking about specific sectors.

The offer of softwares for project management on the market has in fact exploded exponentially in recent years.

These programs are specially designed to improve collaboration between team members and the project manager. They offer a variety of functionalities necessary for the success of a project and it is not so easy to choose the ones that best suit the situation.

A reliable project management software will in fact give the opportunity to share everything about the process in real time. The interaction of the team and the results will consequently improve, but if there are no specific functions indispensable to the project, it may not produce any concrete advantage.

With such a wide offer on the market, the question arises: “Which software is suitable for my project / organization?” Let’s try to build a coherent path of choice.

To choose a project management software, you need to be clear about why you need it

A well-designed project management software will keep everyone up to date on the progress of the work and ensure that the project is progressing as planned.

Many project managers, even today, keep track of projects using Excel, Google spreadsheets or other spreadsheet programs.

These work well up to a certain point and are okay for relatively simple projects that require only few resources.

However, as elaborate as they may be, these tools have significantly lower performance compared to a dedicated project management software.

Here are the telltale signs that indicate the need to use project management software:

  • The team is using too many tools to track different aspects of the project.
  • The team looses too much time writing emails and doing meetings and does not have enough time to generate results.
  • You want to move the project management system to the cloud so that everyone can access information from anywhere and at any time.
  • Business and organizational needs have exceeded the capacity of the current software.
  • Someone does not receive adequate updates or sufficient visibility through the current software.
  • Problems are not tracked properly and risks are not reported in time.
  • The software is too complex, to the point that it is creating inefficiencies, rather than increasing productivity.
  • Collaboration between team members is not efficient or effective.
  • Too much is spent analyzing data and generating reports.

It is precisely the Project Manager who must identify these deficiencies and decide if and when the time has come to make the qualitative leap.

10 essential features in a project management software

Many project management solutions have similar characteristics, but can be addressed in different ways. In our opinion, here are the 10 essential features for a respectable PM software.

1. Good project management software must be easy to use

Project management software will not be useful unless the team uses it.

Some project management tools are very complex and may require a few days of training.

It is important to choose a software that offers the right mix of features provided through an intuitive interface. The simpler it is to use it, the more team members will be convinced to use it.

2. It must allow a complete and correct management of the activities

This function should not only allow you to list all the activities, but also to assign them to the correct team member, so that everyone knows what needs to be done and by whom.

Some project management tools allow you to sort tasks using different filters, such as by resource, department, completion day, etc., so you can quickly locate and organize information.

Most software warns the responsible team member when a deadline is approaching in order to make sure that tasks are completed in a timely manner. If some of these functions were missing, the software in question should be discarded a priori.

3. Planning as a priority of a respectable project management software

You may be able to manage a small project thanks to a simple list of activities on a spreadsheet, however, things can become very complicated in the case of a large project.

If you do not have the opportunity to view the history and understand how the various activities are dependent and influence each other, it may be practically impossible to plan them correctly.

A Gantt chart is therefore a function that is not only important, but indispensable in order to allow the visualization of activities, the interdependencies between them and, consequently, the entire planning of the project.

Choose only software that has an extremely clear and easy to set Gantt function.

4. File sharing as an element of interaction and speeding up of the steps

Most software offers the possibility to share files internally. This allows team members to have quick access to the information they need to do the job.

It is however useful to check if the Project Management software offers the possibility to share files even with people outside the organization, such as suppliers, contractors or customers. Sometimes sharing this could be indispensable in order to not being forced to resort to additional tools.
how to choose a software

5. Instant communication within the team

Good communication is essential to facilitate collaboration and ensure that activities are carried out in an efficient and timely manner.

The need for simplified communication is becoming increasingly important. In most major projects, in fact, an increasing number of people work remotely or are distributed among offices in different places, also in the third sector.

An integrated messaging feature therefore, helps team members communicate quickly in real time without having to exchange hundreds of emails daily.

In addition, other team members can take a quick look at a discussion.

Nowadays, choosing a PM software with the integrated Instant Chat function has become essential.

6. Reporting tools in an efficient software that allows the creation of Reports in real time

Reporting tools collect the previously entered project data and create reports on project budgets, expenses, resource allocation, team member performance and more.

Most project management software has a predefined set of reports that can be generated and some also include custom reports. Before choosing the software for a determined project, it is essential to check the efficiency of these features in depth.

7. A good software must provide a simple and intuitive dashboard

This feature allows you to have a view of the project status through a dashboard with graphs, visual metrics and key indicators.

A simple and intuitive Dashboard not only for the Project Manager but for all team members is certainly a help in focusing on the activities to be carried out and identifying priorities.

The Dashboard should be able, when necessary, to be shared also with stakeholders. In fact, these graphical reports instantly communicate the status of the project and some interested parties might be interested in seeing the general data of the project but do not need to see all the details presented in a written report.

8. User friendly user interface

Even though visual design may not seem like a top priority, it has some importance anyway.

A poor and messy interface could make it difficult for users to find what they need, thus hindering productivity.

A clean, simple and professional interface makes the user experience more enjoyable and may even help team members be enthusiastic about using the software.

Moreover, a well-designed interface is even more important if the project management tool is also used by an end customer.

In fact, a modern and professional design will improve the image of the organization in general.

9. Choose software for the management of projects that allows the personalization of work environments and reports

Customization allows to create a “work environment” that reflects the preferences and needs of an organization: from the logo to the color scheme, from customized reports to the way data are organized.

Moreover, the customization of reports and columns of data allows you to selectively display information. This allows to quickly show relevant data and metrics to different stakeholders.

The possibilities to customize these aspects when choosing a software are often underestimated, but not taking them into consideration can definitely be a mistake.

10. Time, budget and resource management

These three aspects often overlap. The ideal is to have them all together in a single project management software. This surely would represent a valid help for the allocation of the team and resources in a more efficient way.

Optional advanced features

Depending on the nature of the organization’s activity and the complexity of the project, a project manager might also like to have features that are not usually found in default project management softwares. Let’s see together what they are:

1. Additional visualization tools to simplify communication

If you often handle complex data and relevant reports, the Gantt chart may not be sufficient to give a complete view. You may need to use additional visualization tools to simplify the communication of various data and metrics involved in the project.

2. Possibility of integrating risk analysis

If you work with complex projects with many moving parts, an integrated risk analysis feature can be very useful.

This feature allows to identify, analyze, and react quickly to risk factors for the entire duration of a project.

The advantages, as you can well understand, can be enormous not only from the financial point of view but also for the purpose of the project itself.

3. Expense and billing report

Some advanced project management software (but not all) offer customer relationship management features, so-called CRMs, and invoice automation. This allows customer interactions and information to be automatically synchronized.

The billing function synchronizes with time tracking and expense reporting so that all information can be consolidated before an invoice is created.


After understanding the various features offered by the project management tools on the market, it is therefore necessary to clarify one’s needs.

Several factors must be taken into account based on the specific circumstances of an organization in order to ensure that the selected project management software meets the needs. Not only that, it will also be necessary to choose the one that best suits the nature of the projects and the structure of the company, considering current and future growth needs.

When choosing a project management software, it is important to make sure to combine the various features with the requirements of the organization and the team in order to choose the tool that best fits the goals.

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the matrix organization and PM

Matrix organization and PM

Projects require many different activities, therefore the organizational structure should not be rigid, but efficient, flexible and possibly innovative.

Every organization is structured in some way and this structure is determined by the goals of the organization.

The way an organization is structured provides a standard for operating processes and routines. Furthermore, it determines who participates in what, and which project tools are the best to use for each task.

The matrix organizational structure is often used in project management because it speaks of both the final product and the function of the management that produces it. Previously, we had talked about the organizational structures of the project, today we will try to deepen the topic analyzing precisely the matrix organizational structure of a project.

So let’s take a closer look at this type of organizational structure by determining its pros and cons in project management.

What is the matrix organizational structure?

The matrix organizational structure was born as a business response to the increase of large-scale projects.

At the time, accelerated technological applications and the ability to process large amounts of data efficiently were required.

An organizational structure that would allow rapid response to interdisciplinary needs, without messing up the functional organizational structures already in place was needed.

Matrix organizational structures have been developed for the first time in the aerospace industry in the United States.

Until then, a single hierarchical organization had been used, which was good only in the case of very large projects.

However, with the increase of projects of various sizes and complexities, there was a need to find a new solution. A matrix of projects was therefore developed.

The matrix organizational structure is a combination of two or more types of organizational structures.

The matrix organization and the two command chains

Matrix organization is the structure that unites these other organizational structures to give them balance. Usually, there are two chains of command, in which the members of the project team have two leaders or managers.

Often, one manager manages functional activities and the other is a more traditional project manager.

These roles are fluid, since the balance of power between these two types of managers is not rigidly defined.

The best of the two structures and of the two management styles will be used to empower the strengths and limit the weaknesses.

A matrix structure within an organization uses inter-functional teams composed of people specialized in various disciplines who support a common project.

This differs from the traditional hierarchical organizational structure because:

  • Various skills are mixed into a single team
  • Teams work together only for the duration of a project
  • Members of the team come and go when needed to support the project

The matrix organizational structure usually exists in large, multi-project organizations. Employees are considered shared resources between projects.
matrix organization and PM

The pros of a matrix organizational structure

A matrix organizational structure is not a valid solution in every case.

There are advantages and disadvantages that must be understood and analyzed to know if it is the right model for a particular organization. Let’s start to see the pros:

  • Highly qualified and capable resources can be shared between functional units and projects. This allows more open lines of communication that help to share valuable knowledge within the organization.
  • The matrix structure is more dynamic than the functional structure. In fact, it allows employees to communicate more easily across borders, creating a pleasant and collaborative work environment.
  • Employees can expand their skills and knowledge areas by participating in different types of projects. The matrix structure provides a good environment for professionals that can learn and grow their experiences, skills and, consequently, careers.
  • Employees are very competent in functional departments and project teams can get these highly qualified employees whenever their services are needed. This creates a pool of valuable resources that can be used in a flexible way in order to solve problems without having to create new resources.
  • Employees tend to be loyal to the organization because there is a sense of job security. Therefore, the efficiency of a matrix organization is higher

The cons of a matrix organizational structure

Obviously, there are not only advantages in a matrix organizational structure. Let’s see below which are the cons:

  • Employees may refer to two managers, which can be confusing and could cause conflicts. This usually happens in a balanced matrix organization where both leaders have equal authority and power.
  • A conflict may arise between the project manager and the functional manager regarding the distribution of authority and power.
  • Employees can be confused about their role and responsibilities if the priorities are not clearly defined. This can happen especially when they are assigned a different or even contrary task to what they were doing.
  • There could be competition to use resources in case of a scarce resource. This can cause hostility within the workplace and may affect operations.
  • It is generally believed that matrix organizations have more managers than necessary, which increases overall costs.
  • The workload tends to be high in a matrix organization. Employees must do their “regular” job together with the additional work related to a project, which can exhaust them.
  • A matrix structure is expensive to maintain. Organizations must pay extra to maintain resources because not all resources will be occupied at all times. Some resources are needed only for a short duration.

Matrix organizational structure: conclusions

The matrix organizational structure is a response to the problem of managing large and complex projects.

When working on a large project, a highly hierarchical structure can be an obstacle.

Instead of trying to find an alternative solution to a situation that may not have a viable solution, a matrix organizational structure provides a new system that can address better the complexities of large projects.

The matrix organizational structure is more democratic as it acts as if there were not one better way to organize a project. He sees alternatives and different approaches rather than one way forward.

A matrix structure is suitable for large organizations operating in a dynamic environment and requiring a rapid response to market demand.

Although a matrix organization can present a challenge, a project manager can experience great feedback by having a strong team work.

Furthermore, when dealing with projects of very high size and complexity, a matrix organizational structure can be an advantage, but only if the project manager and the team are equipped with valid project management tools.

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project closure

How to best manage project closure

Closing a project is not like turning off a computer. After having apparently finished a project, there is still a lot to do and, even if it does not seem, many things can go wrong.

So much time and effort is made in the planning of a project, but often it is forgotten that the end of a project is just as demanding and important.

Once the final products have been delivered, it does not mean that the project is complete. Ignoring the project closure process results in incomplete project management.

These are the goals to be achieved by closing a project:

  • Delivery of the final product
  • Meet all the requirements of the contract
  • Transfer the project to the customer
  • Review the project in its success stories and shortcomings
  • Guarantee all contracted and received products and services
  • Notify suppliers of project completion
  • Complete the final report

The 4 steps (+1) for the closure of a project

Below we will describe 4 steps (+ 1) that a PM must take in order to properly close a project. Even skipping just one of them would give a sense of incompleteness such that the manager’s reputation could even be questioned.

1. Organize the post-project

The management of a project does not only concern the activities and resources, the budget and the deadlines, but it is an experience from which one can constantly learn.

Having a meeting with the project team to receive feedback on what worked and what didn’t and encouraging honesty, is a positive practice from which the project manager can have many advantages. In addition to the human relationship that can be established between the members of the Team, thanks to the documentation of the errors and the successes of the project, it is possible to create a catalog that offers historical data and information that can be consulted when planning new projects. Each project closure represents a new knowledge produced.

2. Write a complete documentation at the end of the project

Each project generates a lot of documents that must be signed and approved by the stakeholders. This includes the closure of all contracts that have been entered into with internal partners or suppliers or other possible resources. This also includes the closing of all outstanding payments such as invoices, commissions, bonuses, etc.

3. Release the resources once the project is closed

Putting together a team for the project is a formal and crucial process, but releasing it is just as important. Each team is brought together for the mix of skills and experiences that their members bring to a project. It will be the type of project that will then determine the choice of the team members. Each project will be reflected in the team hired to execute it. This applies to both internal as well as external resources.

In the case of external resources, the closure process may seem more obvious. The contract with them expires and it must be ensured that the resources are paid according to the agreements.
In the case of internal resources instead, which often remain within the same organization, it is necessary to remember that even their time for the project is limited. Once the project is finished, these internal resources could be directed to another project. Therefore, not releasing internal resources in time could lead to difficulties and problems in the case of other projects.

4. Archive project documents

Every old project brings with it the so called lessons learned. However, if you do not have an archive where to find old records, any knowledge acquired is lost due to bad organization and documentation management. If you work hard to get a successful project and its related documentation, then it is essential not to lose it.

Before closing a project, it is important to archive all the documents and all the data that could be useful. Even if you do not directly access it, you need to keep track of the work done for other people in the organization. You never know when someone might be interested in going back in time to find out how an old problem has been solved.

5. Celebrate success at the end of the project

the project closure

There is nothing stupid about rewarding and celebrating the project team to recognize a successful job. This underlines the closure of the project, but also plants a seed that can flourish in later projects when there will be an opportunity to work together again. When a job well done is underlined and acknowledged, the morale of the team and of the people are being built. This creates a bond of loyalty between project managers and teams. In the future, these resources will be ready to work even harder in other projects.

As you now know, project closure is an important step in any project, simple or complex.

The closure of the project is an educational experience in which many aspects of project management are learned with respect to what was done during the execution of the project.

It is therefore necessary to resist the temptation to immediately start a new project, but concentrate on completing the formal closure process.

Efficient project closure creates value for all project stakeholders, project managers included.


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how to manage project integration

Project integration management: how to manage integration in a project

Project management can be complicated, especially when different departments have to work together.

As more departments work on the same project, it is likely that each of them will use a different methodology to deliver the results. The methodology chosen is the one to which each department is more accustomed or the one with which a department is more at ease.

This can make collaboration between departments difficult due to differences in process and methodology.

Additional complications to manage in a project

Project complications also occur when working on a larger project. In larger projects, for instance, we will find many moving parts that need to be aligned.

Without the correct alignment of these parts, the project can slow down, become less efficient, and even stop.

If a project manager does not understand how a change in scope will affect planning, costs and resource requirements, how can this change be managed?

Or also, what if the project manager suddenly needs a software developer to work on the project for another month?

Without managing integration across the organization, it can be difficult to see how these scenarios affect the business.

Therefore, to create harmony between the various departments and parts of a project, it is essential to manage the integration of the project, the so called project integration management.

The organization must ensure that a high level of integration is implemented in the project management processes. This aims to achieve long-term strategic corporate goals.

What is project integration management?

Project integration management is a method of coordination that allows the various processes to work together.

Managing the integration of the project basically means making trade-offs. In fact, it is not always possible to obtain everything immediately, and if you want the project to be completed on time and within the given budget, sometimes you will have to make choices.

If there are competing goals, for example, it is necessary to find alternatives in order to meet stakeholder expectations.

To obtain them, it is necessary to identify, define, combine, unify and coordinate the numerous phases and activities within the project management groups and processes.

Therefore, project integration management involves the choice of resource allocations and trade-offs. All while managing, at the same time, the interdependencies present in the project management knowledge areas.

Managing project integration is one of the ten areas of knowledge in project management and is the element that coordinates all aspects of a project.

Here all five phases of a project are touched:

  • Start
  • Planning
  • Execution
  • Monitoring and control
  • Closing

If done correctly, project integration management ensures regular and integrated processes in projects.

The 6 processes of project integration management

To correctly manage the integration of a project, it is necessary to follow 6 processes. Let’s see together what they are:

1. Develop the project charter

The project charter is what gives the authority to start the project. A project charter contains the preliminary roles and responsibilities of the project, including the goals and the assignment of a project manager. It is used as a reference document throughout the project life cycle.

2. Define and manage the scope

This document defines what is part of the project and what is not, and lists all the activities that will be carried out during the project life cycle. In other words, it outlines the results of the project and establishes a measurable criterion for success.

3. Develop the project management plan

Creating a management plan defines how the various processes in the project can work together for greater efficiency and productivity. Here the goals, the budget, the program, and the resources are defined. It is also established which approach will be undertaken in order to complete the project, risk assessment, etc. In short, a formal document to help guide, monitor and execute the project. The project charter is included in the project plan.

4. Direct and manage project work

The project has now begun. Here, the technical and organizational parts of the project should be managed and this process serves to facilitate a regular execution of the project work. The project execution is divided into three parts: implementation, management, and reporting.

5. Monitor and control project work

Project work needs more than just pure management. It requires that the work is also monitored and controlled. This includes managing changes, along with the process, tools, and techniques used to manage change and project development.

Changes can be requested during the project life cycle, but these requests must be monitored and controlled to ensure that the quality of the project is not negatively affected. Emerging change requests are evaluated, managed, and documented. It is a project manager’s task to see where the project could not respect the initially established plan and, if so, take corrective action.

6. Close the project

This last phase includes the review of the various processes used and the evaluation of their success or failure. Everything must be well documented to create an archive on which future projects can refer. Therefore, at the end of each phase of the project, it is important to create a document that outlines the lessons learned during this period.

the project integration management

Project integration management as an element of design coherence

Optimally managing integration in a project, creates consistency throughout the project, from planning to documentation. It can even combine with long-term strategic planning and be able to reveal opportunities.

The process groups mentioned in the previous paragraph are the formal procedures that must be followed by each project manager at all times and for each project in order to ensure that the project ends successfully.

We have also seen how integration management requires the ability to evaluate the resources available and the ability to trade-off and manage competing activities.

Project managers must therefore possess a combination of transversal and complex skills.

These include the capabilities of:

  • Planning
  • Organization
  • Communication
  • Leadership
  • Relationship management
  • Development of critical thinking
  • Data analysis
  • Budgeting
  • Risk analysis and management

It is also important to create open communication channels with the project team and stakeholders. Only in this way, it is possible to ensure that the information is shared and adequate impact assessments are carried out to identify integration points or dependencies.

The possibility of using a software or Integration management tools is another factor that can increase the chances of project success.

In fact, any valuable software is able to identify with precision the points of integration and the conflicts that can be obstacles in the realization of a project.


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project management software in mother tongue

Why choose a project management software in your language

Managing a project effectively is a complex task. It requires a lot of time and high capacity. This is why the implementation of a project management software possibly in the mother tongue simplifies the process.

This implementation becomes more and more essential, if we consider that companies have goals to achieve that can also be taken as a reference point to measure the overall level of success and growth.

he value in purely economic terms of the organization also depends on success, growth, and efficiency. It is clear that if a project management software can be simply used by all members of the team, it can facilitate the achievement of goals, becoming an indispensable resource for the company itself.

An effective general management of the project cannot depend only on the skill of the Project Manager in managing tasks and resources, but also depends on the possibility that the Team has to feel supported, to interact, and to check individual and group progress. All this and much more can be achieved only with the use of a good software in the mother tongue of the Team that helps the PM managing the entire project and the Team to carry it out.

Project management software and its advantage

Since managing a project is a complex and time-consuming process, streamlining it using a project management system is a valuable solution that can be applied to an increasing number of projects and organizations.

The main purpose of the project management software is to assist the team in planning and monitoring the project, taking into account the resources, components, and overall stakeholders.
This investment is economically advantageous in the long term, if we consider the amount that the company could lose with poor project management and if, as already mentioned, we consider the added value that the company has for every goal achieved.

Companies that are not yet using project management softwares are likely to do more work with less profits. This is due to the time wasted on adjustment activities.

If these activities have already been taken into consideration in advance and are already planned, the project manager, with his team, will have more time to concentrate on the fundamental operations for completing of the project.

Here are some reasons why a project management software is useful for organizations of any size:

Scheduling and planning of activities

project management software in the mother tongue
Without a computerized system, it can be difficult for the team to meet deadlines due to the lack of a fixed guideline on what should be done, by whom and by when.
Even the overall visualization of the tasks to be performed helps. Time is lost when employees show up for work without knowing the tasks they should do.
The use of a software outlines the activities and makes them visible and clear to everyone.
Setting deadlines and priorities, together with planning, avoids misunderstandings and overlaps of activities and schedules.
In fact, some of the indispensable functionalities in a project management software are a synchronized and shared team calendar that provides an overview of everything. A calendar that shows the timing and milestones and that allows everyone to see the overall progress.

Management of the resources needed for the project

Resource management is another reason why a project management software is useful.

Managing resources efficiently is important to ensure the proper functioning of the project activities and phases. Good management does not waste anyone’s time.

This feature describes the resources that will be used and when they will be used.

Knowing the materials that will be used in a project allows you to work smoothly without blockings caused by a missing tool or equipment.

The calculation of the use of a resource must also be present. This allows, in a cost saving perspective, not to forget certain resources and to avoid their excessive use.

It is clear that this leads to a reduction in expenses and ensures the payment of resources only when they are really needed and used.

Budget management

Each project comes with a budget that also counts contingencies and profit.

The goal of a project manager is to keep the actual cost below, or at least equal to the estimated cost, in order to maximize the profit earned by the company for the project.

To manage expenses efficiently, the simple creation of an Excel spreadsheet will not be enough.

In this case, some essential functions that a good PM software should have can be the monitoring of the time spent on the various activities. The monthly and weekly reports on expenses, a financial reporting dashboard and, in some cases, the automated billing option will become valuable references for the Project Manager.

Management of the project documentation

Many organizations use excel spreadsheets, others, probably the smallest, can even use pen and paper to track project progress.

However, these methods expose to potential errors. A research shows that 88% of the data in a spreadsheet contains errors that are alarming for organizations that use it as a reference tool for managing business operations.
The use of a project management software guarantees an accurate documentation  based on the data collected in a detailed and methodical way.
A project management software can therefore definitely help you get the projects under control and go in the right direction.

Collaboration within the work team

When managing a large project, each member of the team is designated with individual activities.

To ensure that everyone has the same focus, it is necessary to use a project management software to simplify team collaboration.

When a member has questions or concerns, he must immediately get the right answer by communicating internally to the team. He must communicate with the right people within the right project, without wasting time looking for other sources. Therefore, it is almost essential to have an internal chat within the software.

This reduces the time spent searching for answers

A chat also optimizes the sharing of documents, timelines and status updates to notify everyone of important information such as the amount of work done and how much time is left to complete it.

Some features not to be underestimated can be the possibility of file sharing, sharing of customer data, a chat for each project integrated in the system, and a dashboard for each team that provides an overview of the progress of each single piece within the project.

The choice of a project management software in the mother tongue

In short, thanks to a project management software, it is possible to maintain the management of the group and the project.

But this can only be done if all the members of the Team will be able to use it to its full potential. And how will all this be possible if not all the members of the team fully understand the language of the software?

When choosing a project management software, the language is often underestimated, while playing a key role instead.

Having a software available is certainly important, but it’s not just about having it … You also need to know how to use it and make it work.

There are some aspects related to team management that are strongly related to the language. They are aspects that are a great part of the success or the inexpensiveness of a project.

The software, in the realization of a project, is an almost indispensable resource, and for this reason is important to use a project management software with a multilingual version or a project management software that contemplates the mother tongue.

Certainly, many project managers will understand English, given the amount of foreign terms in the sector.

However, when we talk about other collaborators and team members who have to deal with the system, the situation changes. It is essential to make sure that the chosen software is available in the mother tongue.

It would not be nice if, due to a bad interpretation of a term, the workflow of a given project was somehow interrupted. Interpretation is the enemy of efficiency.

Choosing a project management software in native or multilingual language is essential to ensure the use of the software itself. If the team finds a pleasant environment, where the barriers to use are not present, it will definitely be more inclined to use the tool. Clearly, this will guarantee a constantly updated and performed project.

But there are other aspects related to the language that have to be taken into consideration. Let’s see them together.


Assistance must also be an aspect consider when choosing a software.
In fact, if you choose a project management software in your mother tongue, you can also have mother tongue language support. Any need, any doubt will not leave room for interpretation, the understanding will be immediate and the intervention of the PM will not be necessary.


The software becomes a tool of great value if integrated with the production processes. For this reason, the language becomes strategic in allowing the team to switch from one application to another without having any kind of shock.

Cloud or Enterprise

When choosing a software with a multilingual version, it is essential to think about the evolving company.
Today, choosing whether to install the software or keep it in the cloud is a strategic choice, but it must not become a constraint.
Usually companies start with cloud projects and then evolve towards enterprise solutions. This is why it is necessary to start immediately with a project management software in Italian.
Only thanks to this choice, whatever the evolution of the company, the software can be enjoyed serenely and without barriers by the whole team.

Do you use a project management software? Are there certain fundamental benefits for you that we have not shown in this article? Write us your opinion!


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The PM role and disruptive technologies

The role of the Project Manager changes with disruptive technologies

How are disruptive technologies redefining the Project Manager figure?
The third PMI Report addresses exactly this topic.

As already highlighted in the previous articles, 1st article and 2nd article, disruptive technologies are revolutionizing entire sectors and entire organizations. In short, they are forcing all organizations to change both what they do and how they do it.

This third Report evaluates the results of a survey of 537 executives – including PM – from all over the world on the effects of disruptive technologies on people, projects, work, culture and strategy.

Project Managers and disruptive technology management

In order for organizations to remain within the market, managers and project managers must learn to manage the influence of disruptive technologies.

Currently, the most used disruptive technologies are those shown in the following table.

PM role and disruptive technologies

Already today, disruptive technologies allow many organizations to do their jobs better and respond more quickly to fluctuations in market trends and customer demands.

When talking about change, the Report highlights that the most active organizations are worrying about:

  • Embracing a culture that promotes constant transformation
  • Understanding that change management is critical
  • Identifing managers and PMs as “leaders” of change, when they make disruptive, digital, and transformation changes.

However, one aspect is fundamental: organizations should not limit themselves to just one or two disruptive technologies.

True digital transformation is based not only on the intelligent adoption of different technologies.

Each organization must create its own “digital recipe”.

Managers often take the initiative in creating a digital transformation strategy and become the driving force of change throughout the organization.

It is therefore no surprising that more than half of high-performing organizations consider the leaders responsible for managing the change.

In fact, the most effective way to drive change is to create senior leaders who believe in digital transformation and can manage the culture of transformation within the organization.


The change takes place from the top down and will not work unless the employees are managed and led by leading people.

Disruptive technologies: best practices

Considering disruptive technologies, there is no single approach for every organization.

The Report lists some best practices related to promoting change in organizations, which Project Managers should pay attention to:

  • Participate in the change process actively.
  • Organize meetings and campaigns for change.

A successful action is to meet regularly with employees in order to discuss the benefits of digital transformation, the way in which disruptive technologies can improve workflows and increase productivity.

  • Communicate effectively and ask for regular feedback.

But digital transformation doesn’t just happen thanks to this.

Organizations also need a well-designed strategy, smart technology choices, and project management skills. All these factors that should be found in the project manager.

Organizations also need team members with an innovative mindset. This sometimes means choosing people who do not have a high level of experience, but have the ability and willingness to try new things, experiment, fail, move forward.

As a result, many organizations are starting to train their talents in order to strengthen the entire company.

Executives believe it is important for talents to have project management skills among the top three skills.

People with project management skills often support and even adopt frequent changes to compete and succeed in a fast-paced business environment.

Therefore, a robust organizational change management program is a top priority in order to help organizations embrace new technologies.

The 5 fundamental steps for change

To instill a culture of constant change and innovation, organizations must:

1. Invest in continuous education and training

New tools and techniques allow employees, including project managers, to work more efficiently and quickly than ever before. Investment in talent and continuing education must therefore be a priority for organizations. Ultimately, the use of disruptive technologies also affects people and not just technology.

2. Fully involve employees

As promising as new technologies may be, such as artificial intelligence and robotics, workers will easily consider them a threat.

To allay their fears, organizations should provide timely and accurate information on new opportunities.

The management, the PMO, and project managers can help make insecurities disappear by guiding change management from the inside.

3. Make leadership and project managers the leaders of change

Project leaders will play an important role in integrating the culture of innovation and change, evangelizing new technologies and methods throughout the organization. In this way they become educators, helping people understand how to apply new technologies and new systems.

4. Create a data-based organization

Data is the lifeblood of a digital organization.

Rapid advances in data science enable organizations to analyze vast amounts of data for insights and processes. Moreover, predictive analysis can help managers identify problems and risks before they occur therefore taking preventive actions.

To truly make the most of all this information, organizations must promote a data-centric culture in which leadership is based on these to make decisions. For the next generation PMO and future project managers, data science will be an essential part of the skills. Considering all this, also a project management software can play a decisive role.

5. Eliminate the fear of making mistakes

Building a culture of innovation requires the freedom to experiment with new ideas and new ways of working, without the fear of being “punished” if something goes wrong.

By adopting disruptive technologies, organizations must accept an environment in which employees, by experimenting, can fail, learn from their experience, and move on to the next “experiment”.

Traditional leadership is not accustomed to accepting failure, but must allow this experimentation mentality so that innovation can flourish.


A huge part of a successful digital transformation depends on an organization’s ability to embrace change.

This evolution is pushing organizations to rethink how to evaluate the success of project management.

Project management was once measured in terms of ability to deliver on time, within the budget and with quality, but what differentiates and creates success in project management is now the ability to innovate within the project.

This is where project leaders become strategic.

Here the link to download the Reports


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